- Body Surgery
- Facial surgery
- Non-surgical procedures
- Plastic surgery history Plastic surgeons
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In 1794, an article describing an intervention was published in the English magazine Gentelman’s Magazine for the reconstruction of the nose to a Hindu soldier. He had used the frontal flap, according to Sushruta’s technique. This article caused English surgeons to rediscover this technique, and so Carpue, professor of Surgery at the University of London, he updates it, considering it superior to the method italiano1, 2. He made several experiences in cadavers, until 1814 in which he performs the first reconstructive surgery Live. It lasted about 30 minutes, without anesthesia, to a patient that had been subjected to a treatment with derivatives of the mercury due to a liver disease that had caused the loss of the nasal pyramid. The few sutures that He made some five, he made them with linen: he gave a central point, two laterals and two at the edge of the back2, 4. These experiences he published in 1816 and his works were very good welcomed in Europe, many surgeons who used the Indian flap. Among the disciples of Carpue, Von Graeffe, born in Warsaw, who studied in Dresden and was a professor at the University of Berlin. In 1818 he published a book in which describes three methods of nasal reconstruction: the method Indian, Tagliacozzi and, finally, the so-called method German, which consists of a modification of the Tagliacozzi. It is a flap with a free arm graft. He is considered one of the initiators of cosmetic surgery, since in his work describes techniques to rejuvenate the eyelids, what that makes him a pioneer of blepharoplasty8. Dieffenbach considered plastic surgery, “as a decorative art and, above all, reconstructive “. According to her The nose is a complex organ, whose reconstruction requires join several pieces. His work Die Operative Chirurgie, published in 1845 not only describes the Hindu flap, but others, like the one of advance in V-Y6,7 (figure 10). It was also pioneer in the use of anesthesia with ether. Likewise, describes the first technique for the treatment of the ears prominent post-traumatic To do this, it resected retroauricular skin and sutured the atrial cartilage to the periosteum. mastoideo9. In 1856, Deconvilliers described the first Z plasty and in Boston, Warren, in 1840, practiced the first total graft of skin, although it also used the Indian flap1, 3, 4. To the reduction of the surgical risks, which contributed the anesthesia and the improvement of the different methods reconstructive, joined the emergence of the concept of asepsis, coined by Lister, completed and expanded in the studies conducted by Pasteur, which led to apply the idea of facial repair, to improve certain aesthetic aspects, regardless of whether they were wounds or mutilations. John O. Roe (1848-1915) is considered the forerunner of contemporary nasal aesthetic surgery. This surgeon worked in Rochester and began to apply aesthetic criteria with reductions in the tip or by modifying the alterations of the nasal dorsum, but it is also the first in performing intranasal techniques in rhinoplasty. On 1 February 1887 presented at the New Medical Society York the results of these first intranasal rhinoplasties1, 2, 3, 7. The alterations that, above all, in the nose, caused the syphilis, led surgeons like Hardie and Wair to use various types of fillers: fragments of sternum of duck, the fifth finger, platinum, etc., to try to improve the “Saddle”, which these patients presented. However, the curious fact is that it is Joseph who is considered the father of modern rhinoplasty. East famous surgeon of Berlin was guided by the proportions Facials proposed by Leonardo da Vinci. Joseph was performing an external approach with excision of skin, cartilage and block bone. In 1928 he published a three-volume text that collects all his work and then reissues it in 193110. In 1881 Edward T. Ely describes his technique for the treatment of protruding ears. This consisted of a retroauricular incision with fixation of the shell to the mastoid and resection of a strip of cartilage. I made it in two times, in each of which operated a pavilion. Later, Monks redefined the technique by drying only retroauricular sulcus skin in children and skin and cartilage in Adults. At the beginning of the 20th century, Morestin devised a method that allowed to mediate the antehélix through the excision of the medial portion of the conchal cartilage, thus decreasing projection of the shell.